Bottled Water

Minimum ratio of energy needed to produce and distribute bottled water compared to municipal water: 1,100 : 1

Percentage of bottled water that originates from municipal wells: 44%

Estimated U.S. consumption of bottled water, in liters per year: 33 billion

Number of gallons of bottled water consumed per person per year, based on 2007 U.S. population: 30

Amount of energy needed to supply U.S. demand for bottled water, as a percentage of U.S. primary energy consumption: 0.33%

Energy input equivalent this represents, in barrels of oil: 32-54 million

Approximate energy input equivalent, in ounces of oil, for every 4 ounces of bottled water produced and distributed: 1

Gleick, P. H. and Cooley, H.S. "Energy Implications of Bottled Water." Environmental Research Letters 4, no. 1 (January-March, 2009),