Designing Pro-Poor Rewards for Ecosystem Services
Land Tenure Center Spring Forum 7-8 April 2008
Please click on a name to see a brief bio of that speaker.
Keith Alger is the Vice President of the Human Dimensions Program at Conservation International's Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. The Human Dimensions Program (HDP) explores the complex relationships between people and the conservation of species and their habitats. HDP researchers analyze historical, demographic, economic, and political trends to better understand the interconnections between human activity and biodiversity. These results are essential in developing strategies that support biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, and human welfare. HDP research relates theories and data from sociology, anthropology, economics, and geography, to the specific issues of biodiversity loss and conservation on the one hand, and human welfare and socio-economic development on the other. HDP staff and collaborating researchers combine first-hand field research with existing analyses and datasets to conduct their cross-disciplinary analysis.
Brad Barham is a professor in the Agricultural and Applied Economics Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research program centers on themes related to Wisconsin agriculture, technology adoption and innovation, and environment and development issues, especially in Latin America. He has active research projects on agricultural biotechnology adoption, university ag-biotech patents and spillovers, structural change in Wisconsin dairy farming, the equity and efficiency impacts of land market reforms in Central America, and resource use patterns of peasants in biodiverse regions of the Peruvian Amazon.
His extension program focuses on making the Program on Agricultural Technology Studies (PATS) useful to the UW-Extension system, especially in the Agriculture and Natural Resource program, as well as to other farmers organizations and other agricultural professionals concerned with the structure, conduct, and performance of agriculture in Wisconsin. As the Co-Director of PATS, his main responsibility is to oversee research-extension projects related to the health and vitality of Wisconsin agriculture and Wisconsin farm families.
Dan Bromley is Anderson-Bascom Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research concerns the institutional foundations of an economy. His current research has two dominant themes--one philosophical and one empirical.
The philosophical aspect, in which he develops the concept of volitional pragmatism, is spelled out in his most recent book: SUFFICIENT REASON: Volitional Pragmatism and the Meaning of Economic Institutions (Princeton University Press, 2006). Volitional pragmatism offers a new approach to human action--one that challenges standard rational choice models central to economics. In volitional pragmatism individuals "work out" what they want in the way of choice and action as they come to understand the choices available to them. Volitional pragmatism builds on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, John Dewey, John R. Commons, Thorstein Veblen, and Richard Rorty.
The empirical aspect of his current research concerns the ongoing problem of immiserization in much of Africa. This empirical work connects with the philosophical aspect above because he traces persistent development problems in the African continent to a variety of pathologies that can be traced to "institutional incoherence." Institutional incoherence refers to a situation in which the legal foundations of economic transactions are degraded and dysfunctional. Most economic activity is stifled by low net returns. It is often assumed that the African state smothers economic initiative and that therefore development assistance must be focused on NGOs and other "unofficial" parties. Dr. Bromley suggests that this development strategy is perverse. If development is to come to the African continent it can only happen with a re-vitalized state leading the way. The history of success in development is clear that markets only flourish when the state takes an active role in providing necessary infrastructure, in promoting particular sectors, and in securing the legal foundation for entrepreneurial activity. The growth success of China over the past 20 years is clear evidence of what can happen when the state takes a central role in creating the political and legal underpinnings of the market.
Oliver Coomes was born and raised in British Columbia. He did his BSc in Geography at the University of Victoria, mostly in physical geography (though his Honours thesis was actually on urban recreation!). He then took up a fellowship at the University of Toronto where he completed an MA in Geography which focussed on environmental management and policy - his thesis examined regulatory, judicial and administrative strategies to reduce the acid rain problem between Canada and the US.
At that point he decided to shift gears and went to work in the private sector for a large Canadian engineering firm as an environmental consultant. For six years he worked on a variety of environmental problems in Canada and overseas for private firms, government ministries and multilateral agencies. One of the projects took him to West Africa where he conducted an Environmental Impact Assessment for the World Bank on a dam proposed for the Niger River; the work required lots of interviewing with peasant farmers along the river and he was fascinated. He decided to return to school so that he could learn more about the lives and livelihoods of the resource-reliant peoples in the developing world. He quit his job and went to the University of Wisconsin-Madison where he did his Ph.D. in Geography (major area: cultural ecology; minors: development economics and water resources engineering). It was at Madison that he decided to focus on the Amazon basin and peasant economic livelihood among riverine peasants of northeastern Peru. When he finished my dissertation he took up a professorship at McGill where he has been since 1992.
Pete Coppolillo directs the Rugwa-Ruaha Living Landscapes Program. Coppolillo received a bachelor's degree in Biology and Environmental Conservation from the University of Colorado, and a Ph.D. in Ecology from the University of California, Davis. He has studied Ferruginous Hawks (Buteo regalis) in North America, avian community ecology in Kenya, large herbivore ecology and herding systems in Tanzania, and, in collaboration with other WCS Conservationists, helped to develop protected area strategies in Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Congo, the United States and Cambodia. Coppolillo joined WCS's Living Landscapes Program (based in New York) in 2000, and in 2003 he initiated the Rungwa-Ruaha Program in central Tanzania. He lives with his wife, daughter and son in Lunda-Mkwambi Wildlife Management Area, adjacent to Ruaha National Park.
Ian Coxhead is a professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he teaches and conduct research in development economics. His research interests include: trade, development policy and the environment in developing economies; devolution, local public finance and environmental management; social capital and rural development; policy lessons from watershed and upland research in the Philippines; trade and investment, economic structure, and long-run growth in SE Asian economies; land use, technology choice and environmental consequences in upland agriculture.
He is chair of the Development Studies Ph.D. Program and a faculty member of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies. He also is adjunct professor at the Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
Lisa Curran is interested in the mechanisms that underlie community structure and dynamics of tropical forests and how ecological interactions are altered by human activities. Her work aims to enhance equitable and responsible management of tropical forests by integrating knowledge of ecological processes in natural systems with the socio-political and economic realities as viewed by a diversity of users. Field research primarily in Indonesia has focused on long-term studies of the reproductive ecology, demography, and harvest of mast-fruiting Dipterocarpaceae, the most economically important family of tropical timber. Current research interests include: spatio-temporal scale of natural and anthropogenic processes and disturbance; plant-animal interactions, especially seed predation, herbivory, and seed dispersal; canopy tree demography, phenology, and regeneration; ecological role of ectomycorrhizae in ecosystems; and effects of government policies and logging practices on ecosystem management and biodiversity in Asia.
Jon Foley is the founder and Director of the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, where he is also the Gaylord Nelson Distinguished Professor of Environmental Studies and Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences. His work examines complex global environmental systems and their interactions with human societies. His research team uses state-of-the-art computer models and satellite measurements to analyze changes in ecosystems, land use, climate and freshwater resources across local, regional and global scales. Their work has contributed to the understanding of large-scale ecosystem processes, global patterns of land use, the planet's water and carbon cycles, and interactions between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Foley joined the University of Wisconsin faculty in 1993 as the first Bryson Distinguished Professor of Climate, People and Environment. He has won numerous awards and honors, including the National Science Foundation's Faculty Early Career Development Award, the Samuel C. Johnson Distinguished Faculty Fellowship, the J.S. McDonnell Foundation's 21st Century Science Award, and the Sustainability Science Award from the Ecological Society of America. In 1997, President Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. He has also been named a Vilas Associate and Romnes Fellow of the University of Wisconsin, and an Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow of the Ecological Society of America. He is currently the Chief Editor of the interdisciplinary scientific journal, Earth Interactions.
Holly Gibbs is a Ph.D. candidate in the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment where her research is supported by a DOE Global Change Environmental Fellowship. Her dissertation research is focused on global-scale tropical deforestation and the implications for the global carbon cycle and climate. Holly is developing techniques to blend remote-sensing data (e.g., AVHRR / MODIS / Landsat) and detailed ground-based surveys to create new spatially-explicit "hybrid" estimates of both gross and net tropical deforestation rates for the 1980s and 1990s. Holly is also studying the fate of cleared land by integrating satellite and ground-based data (e.g., household surveys, detailed census) to better understand tropical land-use dynamics following deforestation. She is particularly interested in how shifting deforestation and land-use practices are leading to less secondary forest regrowth in some tropical regions.
Holly is also working to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and subsequent land use. Holly's other major research focus is bridging across scales, perspectives, and epistemologies to develop a richer understanding and description of tropical land-use processes. One of her primary professional goals is to develop rigorous and integrative research methods is to conduct earth system science in a new way, one that bridges the globally-consistent "top-down" view with place-based "bottom-up" views and generates knowledge in a more accountable, transparent, and participatory way. Holly recently co-developed the Earth Collaboratory (along with Jon Foley), which is an internet-based mechanism attempting to conduct global-scale participatory research on tropical deforestation. She is also highly engaged in connecting her science to international policy and works closely with Conservation International's Center for Applied Biodiversity, the Tropical Forest Group, and the Coalition for Rainforest Nations. Holly has worked closely in support of the UNFCCC initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD).
In 1998 Professor Jacobs edited Who Owns America? Social Conflict Over Property Rights (University of Wisconsin Press); in 2004, in collaboration with the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy he prepared the edited volume Private Property in the 21st Century: Globalization of an American Ideal? (Edward Elgar). He is the editor or co-author of three books and author or co-author of over 70 articles and essays published in academic and professional journals in the United States and western Europe. Generally Professor Jacobs is interested in how societies define property, and the institutions they develop to manage the relationship between private and public rights in property. In his work he argues that these institutions are often a stage in which we act out social debate about more fundamental social values (such as liberty, democracy, citizenship and empowerment).
Michael Jenkins is President & CEO of Forest Trends. In 1998 Michael was in a joint appointment as a Senior Forestry Advisor to the World Bank. From 1989-1999 he was the Associate Director for the Global Security and Sustainability Program of the MacArthur Foundation. Michael's responsibilities with the Program included all grant making in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as overarching program management. Before entering the Foundation, he worked for three years as an agroforester in Haiti with the USAID Agroforestry Outreach Program. Previous to that he worked with a Washington based development organization, Appropriate Technology International, as a technical advisor. In the late 70s, Michael was a Peace Corps volunteer in Paraguay working in agriculture, apiculture and forestry projects. He has traveled and worked throughout Latin America, Asia and parts of Africa, and speaks Spanish, French, Portuguese, Creole and Guarani. Michael has contributed to a number of books and articles and with Island Press published "The Business of Sustainable Forestry, Strategies for an Industry in Transition". He holds a Master's of Forest Science from Yale University.
He left the Earth Institute in 2003 and established his own consulting business but continued to teach a course, Environmental Policy, Politics and Management, for Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs.
Throughout his career, he has focused on improving the links between scientific understanding and decision- and policy-making. He has written and spoken on the theory of interdisciplinarity and on sustainability and been involved in discussions about the governance of science and technology.
Paula Kahumbu is co-author of the bestselling Owen & Mzee: The True Story of a Remarkable Friendship and Owen & Mzee: The Language of Friendship. Dr. Kahumbu oversees Owen and Mzee's care in Mombasa, Kenya. She is an ecologist and General Manager of Lafarge Eco Systems. Paula is also with Wildlife Direct and is in charge of developing conservation partnerships. She makes sure that the projects address important conservation concerns in an appropriate way.
Paula is an ecologist and a passionate tree hugger. She spent many years studying monkeys and elephants in Kenya and worked for the Kenya Wildlife Service on wildlife policy, trade and park management issues and later managed a quarry restoration company. She is passionate about Africa and conservation, saving wild species and wild places, all for a purely selfish reason: so that she can enjoy them. Her life goal is to revert the people of the world to loving nature, starting with Joshua, her son.
John Kerr received his Ph.D. in applied economics in 1990 at the Food Research Institute, Stanford University. Before joining the faculty at Michigan State University in 1999 he worked at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad, India, and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington, DC. His research interests are in international agricultural development and natural resource management. Focal areas of his research have been on adoption of agricultural technology and natural resource conservation practices, collective action and property rights related to natural resource management, and the interaction of these things with rural poverty in developing countries. Most of his previous research has been in India. Current research interests focus on linking small farmers to markets for both high value horticultural products and environmental services. Both these kinds of markets can potentially offer small farmers much-needed new income sources. However, they both involve high transaction costs and other barriers that make it difficult for small farmers to access them, so institutional and technical innovations are needed to overcome these barriers. Kerr's current research addresses the nature and effectiveness of such innovations. Currently he has projects on both of these topics in India, and one on environmental services in Indonesia.
Ann Koontz is the Senior Program Advisor for EnterpriseWorks/VITA. Ms. Koontz has over 25 years experience working with non-profit and for-profit sectors in the United States, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. On the private sector side she worked for tourism and management consulting firms. She is a recognized expert in small-scale enterprise development and requested speaker on the enterprise/environment nexus. She has conducted value chain, subsector and market studies for environmentally friendly products that can be sustainably harvested and processed by local communities. These products/services include tree crops, timber and non-timber forest products, light industry, agricultural, aquaculture and tourism products in over 20 developing countries. She has brokered deals with the private sector for innovative product sourcing and payments for ecosystem services that benefit small-scale producers in developing countries. Ms. Koontz is an experienced project manager who has strengthened the capabilities of host-country institutions to develop and manage sustainable enterprises. She has a M.B.A. from The George Washington University and a B.A. in International Relations from Stanford University.
Steven Lawry is Senior Research Fellow at the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University, where he manages a research program on transnational philanthropy and poverty reduction. Before joining the Hauser Center, he was President of Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, from January 2006 to August 2007. Lawry held a variety of senior positions at the Ford Foundation from 1992 to 2006. He served as Ford's Assistant Representative and Rural Poverty and Resources Program Officer for South Africa and Namibia from 1992 to 1997. He was the Foundation's Representative for the Middle East and North Africa from 1997 to 2001, based in Cairo, and Director of the Office of Management Services at Ford's New York headquarters from 2001 to 2006.
Before joining the Ford Foundation, Lawry was Associate Director, responsible for Africa programs, at the Land Tenure Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Lawry's academic research before joining the Ford Foundation focused on land rights and land reform in sub-Saharan Africa. He has lived in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Egypt, and has worked extensively in South Africa, Uganda and Mali. Lawry is married to Deborah Kahn, who teaches medieval art history at Boston University. His stepson William Freedberg is an avid bird-watcher, fisherman and budding scholar.
David Lewis is a professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research is focused on environmental and resource economics, land economics, spatial modeling, biodiversity conservation, microeconometric and GIS applications, and regional development. He is particularly interested in the effects of environmental policies on private landscapes and ecosystem services. Examples of his projects include the economics of reducing wildlife habitat fragmentation; residential development on amenity-rich landscapes; agricultural spatial externalities, development, and the environment; incentive-based policies for biodiversity and ecosystem services; and amenities and rural development.
Rob Marchant. His main interest is researching processes of environmental change and how these are registered by tropical vegetation, how this may respond in a future of uncertain change and how we can use such information for appropriate policy development. His research covers basic ecological data gathering, accessing sedimentary archives of long term change and developing methods to use an understanding, at an ecologically sensible timeframe, of the events that have shaped the past, present composition and future composition and distribution of tropical ecosystems.
There are three main geographical areas where he has active research programmes: East Africa, Latin America and Ireland. Although these three areas are quite different, there are interesting linkages between them, particularly through the Atlantic Ocean and associated climate interactions and feedbacks to the terrestrial ecosystems. Many of the climatic dynamics that impact tropical ecosystems have a global origin; understanding the phase relationships of how ecosystems respond to these large scale processes is vital for a considered insight into the future.
Tom McCarthy. His first involvement with snow leopards was quite accidental, but he considers them such an amazing animal, occurring in some of the most fascinating places on the planet, that he has never really considered changing my focus. He has been a wildlife biologist since the mid-1980s when he worked on bear, mountain goats and caribou in Alaska. He started working with snow leopards in 1993 and conducted a long-term radio collaring study of snow leopards in Mongolia, which was completed in 1998 and formed the basis of his Ph.D. After a short time away from snow leopards, doing biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean, he became the Science and Conservation Director with the Snow Leopard Trust in 2000.
James Murombedzi is with the Liberia Land Rights and Community Forestry Programme. Recently, he served as the Regional Director for Southern Africa, for the World Conservation Union. His passion is for rural development, conservation and development and livelihood enhancement among marginalized communities in developing countries. His professional focus has been on community economic development, the environment, human rights issues, governance, peace, poverty alleviation, and the development of strong and independent civil societies. His specific competencies are in the political economy of natural resources management, rural development, sustainable development, conservation and development, land and resource tenure policy development and analysis, livelihoods and access to land and natural resources, common property resources management, social institutions and social movements, and decentralization and participatory conservation and development. Recently, he has been working on linking natural resources governance, community based natural resources management and land tenure with climate change adaptation, livelihoods, and policy, particularly in communal tenure regimes.
Carlos Muñoz-Piña is the Director General of the Environmental Economics and Policy Research Unit, at the Instituto Nacional de Ecología in Mexico.
Lisa Naughton is Professor in the Geography Department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and a Senior Research Fellow for the Center of Applied Biodiversity Science of Conservation International. Dr. Naughton has been investigating the social dimensions of biodiversity conservation in the tropics for twenty years and is expert on wildlife management in agroforest ecosystems. She has written over 40 peer-reviewed articles and co-edited a book on African Rainforest Ecology and Conservation published by Yale University Press. In 2003, Dr. Naughton was a Visiting Scientist at Princeton University's Environmental Institute where she studied the impact of forest carbon sequestration projects on biodiversity conservation and local communities. During her 2005-2006 sabbatical, she served as a Fulbright Faculty at Makerere University, Uganda and then as Fulbright-Hays Faculty in Ecuador. She now directs UW-Madison's Land Tenure Center, and Chairs the Graduate Program in Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development.
Pete Nowak received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota's College of Agriculture in 1977. He served as both an assistant and associate professor at Iowa State University before joining the faculty at the University of Wisconsin in 1985. At UW-Madison he holds multiple appointments as a Soil and Water Conservation Specialist in the Environmental Resources Center and Research Professor and Chair of Outreach in the Nelson Institute. He also served as Chair of the Wisconsin Buffer Initiative for the last three years. Pete's career has focused on measuring and explaining the adoption and diffusion of agricultural technologies, especially those with natural resource management implications. More recently he has focused on examining the application of spatial analytical techniques and statistics to critical issues in resource management.
His work has been published in a variety of journals and books. He has served as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Editorial Board of the Journal of Precision Agriculture and on the Foundation for Environmental Agricultural Education. In the recent past he has worked with the National Academy of Science's Board on Agriculture, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service and a National Blue Ribbon Panel examining the USDA Conservation Effectiveness Assessment Project. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Soil and Water Conservation Society.
Tendro Ramaharitra is a Ph.D. student at the University of California at Berkeley. One year before finishing his undergraduate degree at the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar, Tendro began to work in field of biodiversity conservation, research, and development. He belonged to the team that initiated the Rural Beekeeping Project. Then, he took over management of the project and coordinated the activities, edited the course pack, and gave lectures on beekeeping techniques. He also led a research team of university students to conduct socio-economic surveys within villages in the peripheral zone of Ranomafana National Park. He started the master's program at the School of Forestry of Yale University in fall 2003. For his master's project, he went back to Ranomafana National Park to study the natural regeneration patterns of the tropical rainforest and human disturbances.
Currently, Tendro's Ph.D. work focuses on land use and conservation issues in Madagascar. It involves talking to rural households about land use issues, mapping individual and communal land, and combining these two types of information to produce a spatial explicit model. One the goals is to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation policies in Madagascar by looking at how these policies impact land use behavior and land management around the Protected Areas. His research site is located around the Makira Protected Area, in the northeastern part of Madagascar.
Luis Suarez is the Executive Director of Conservation International's Ecuador Program in the South American Field Division.
Suyanto has more than 15 years experience in natural resource management and institutional analysis. He has worked at the ICRAF-Southeast Asian Regional Research Programme based in Indonesia since 1994, developing a range of skills in socio-economic, natural resource economics, econometrics and institutional analysis. He conducted a study on the evolution of indigenous land tenure and tree resource management in the buffer zone of Kerinci National Seblat Park in Sumatra for his Ph.D. dissertation. This study was part of the project "Property Rights and Collective Action: A Multi-Country Project" led by Keijiro Otsuka. From 1999 to 2004, Suyanto conducted a socio-economic study of the underlying causes and impacts of fires in Sumatra within a joint CIFOR/ICRAF project. In this study there was a focus on the relationship between fire, deforestation, land tenure conflict and community based fire management. An integrated approach of socio-economic, ecology and remote sensing analysis was applied in this project.
From 2004-2006, he was a principle scientist for the collaborative project "Poverty, environmental services and property rights." The partners were Michigan State University, International Food and Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and ICRAF. Suyanto is also project site manager for Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services that They Provide (RUPES) for the site in Sumberjaya, Lampung. Dr. Suyanto has strong skills and experience in conducting household surveys and also in using a RRA/PRA approach. He has published articles in international journal and supervised student from various universities in writing theses.
Adrian Treves is interested in how we balance human needs with wildlife conservation. To study this question, he explores people's conflicts with large carnivores, past and present, in the USA and abroad. His field research centers on conflicts involving mammalian carnivores--particularly livestock predators. This line of inquiry takes him into issues of livestock husbandry, wildlife management, human and carnivore behavior and methods for mitigating human-carnivore conflicts. In the field, he measures the behavior of problem carnivores using spatial predictive models and people's responses to and perceptions of conflicts. His fieldwork is currently conducted in Wisconsin, Ecuador, and South Africa with a variety of collaborators. His students work in Kenya (lions and hyenas) and Ecuador (spectacled bears). He is also interested in how conservation projects are planned from threats assessment to intervention selection to monitoring for adaptive management. He is currently collaborating with a team in Bolivia to document the stakeholder participation, expert technical input, and policy process for selecting interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.
Matthew Turner is a professor in the Geography Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research interests include: political ecology, development theory, politics of conservation and conservation science, remote sensing/GIS applications to natural resource management, pastoralism and common property theory, ecology of tropical savanna/steppe vegetation, range ecology.
Kelly Wendland a Ph.D. student in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at UW-Madison. Her concentrations are natural resource and development economics. Before coming to Madison, Kelly was a Research Assistant in the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International. Other work experience includes a year with the Center for Environmental Economics at Research Triangle Institute and service in the Peace Corps in Togo. Kelly holds a M.S. in natural resources management and a B.S. in biology.